Comparative Analysis on Kikuyu

Comparative Analysis on Kikuyu

Comparative Examination on Kikuyu within the SPE and Post-SPE Framework

Term Paper for Foundations of Phonology Course


This paper aims at observing the data group of Kikuyu words. Two frameworks will be compared, i.e. the Audio Pattern of English (henceforth; SPE), and Content SPE (Autosegmental Phonology). Within the discussion, approaches form other theories may also be highlighted; however, the primary point tackled in this paper is usually to evaluate the data group of Kikuyu on the basis of phonological theories within both frameworks involved.

Based on SPE theory, the lexical entries should consist of sufficient details for the phonological rules so as to identify its phonetic forms for each context. In other words, each lexical entry is entered as a couple of phonological exclusive features. Furthermore, the underlying representation (UR) is recognized as an abstract representation in comparison to a surface representation (SR). Along the paper, we will discuss both frameworks together with feature notations and we will analyze the info set segmentally to get the rules governing the words of Kikuyu.

In another section, we will try to evaluate the variability of the coordinated articulary apparatus with the spirit of the Post-SPE framework influenced by a number of issues in the optimization of the data set analysis of with regards to the framework inquestion. During the analysis, we will not consider some fundamental requirements such as for example No Crossing Constraint and Linking Constraint in buy to be constant with the well-formedness state of Post-SPE framework. Furthermore, we will also approach the so-named geometry of phonetic representations accompanied by adequate examples to figure out any possible solution.

One of the central issues resolved within this paper may be the examination on the shifting of nasal + consonant with respect to the given info set. We will attempt to do a comparison of two theories in question and observe how those theories could account for the changes in the info set. At a later stage, we will see which theory casts better research of the given data compared to the other does.

Some literatures will be looked at especially those from the textbook of Phonological Theory: THE FUNDAMENTAL Readings by Goldsmith, J. such as for example The Sound Pattern of English by Chomsky, N. and Halle, M., amongst others, and also relevant sources which can give us more information about the terminology of Kikuyu. Now, let us go through the analysis from the earliest framework, i just.e. the SPE framework.

The SPE Framework

The SPE framework is believed to be the foundation of Generative Phonology since theories within this framework had been influenced by the sights from generative linguistics. Chomsky and Halle (in Goldsmith, 1999 : 17-19) declares that a speaker’s understanding of his language consists of knowing the lexical items of the vocabulary and each lexical entry must contain specified features, which identify the phonetic sort of the item in all contexts, i.e. the item’s phonological features. Furthermore, such phonological features happen to be classificatory devices, they are binary, mainly because are all various other classificatory features in the lexicon, for by natural means of indicating whether or not something belongs to a particular category is through binary features.

There will be two levels of representations that’ll be reviewed in the SPE framework; underlying representation (i.e. lexical or morphophonemic sequence) and the surface contact form (i.e. phonetic end result type). Given the authors’ aim at maximizing the ‘simpleness’ of the grammar, it follows that underlying representations ought to be as abstract as feasible and steer clear of redundant, or non-exclusive, features. Minimized fundamental representations are in fact a requirement to ensure the generality of the overall linguistic system.

Within this framework, we will examine the info set on the vocabulary of Kikuyu in the spirit of morphological evaluation, overview on any likely alternation within the dataset, and also identifying the fundamental representation (UR) from the granted data set. Third , analysis, we will try to observe possible rules with characteristic notation of the presented data to get a generalized guideline ordering within the data set. For this analysis, we also make reference to the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) chart, specifically for the consonants chart and their features. Why don’t we try to analyze the info place from the morphological analysis with the given info set below.

The data set of Kikuyu is given below in table 1:


Imperative---1 sg.Imperfect--English Meaning

ßura------mbureet?--------'lop off'

ßaara-----mbaareet?-------'appearance at'










From table 1, we can see that there are two forms to observe, the one being Imperative and the various other getting the 1-sg-Imperfect from data set of Kikuyu dialect, which is followed by its meaning in English. The table shows that for every given word, many letters remain unchanged, which is typed in Bold in the word. Most of them seem to get a Vowel and Consonant buy (VC) and a long vowel a person (i.e. VVC) such as for example in ßaara. Furthermore, we are able to likewise see in the Essential column where all words are always finished with a, marked after a slash sign (-). Subsequently, what in the initial singular Imperfect column happen to be always finished with an ‘eet?’, which is also separated by a slash (-). A complete data set examination is given in desk 2 below.

Table 2


Imperative-------------1 sg. Imperfect------------English Translation

ßur - a--------------------mbur - eet?----------------------'lop off'

ßaar- a--------------------mbaar- eet?----------------------'look at'

t?m - a--------------------nd?m - eet?----------------------'cut'

tom - a--------------------ndom - eet?----------------------'send'

reh - a--------------------ndeh - eet?----------------------'pay'

ru? - a--------------------ndu? - eet?----------------------'cook'

cin - a--------------------??in - eet?----------------------'burn'

kom - a--------------------?gom - eet?----------------------'sleep'

ker - a--------------------?ger - eet?----------------------'cross'

?or - a--------------------?gor - eet?----------------------'buy'

?aj - a--------------------?gaj - eet?----------------------'divide'

From table 2, we are able to see that the unchanged letters, which will be Bold typed above, are the stems or could possibly be section of the stems of the term in fundamental representation. Furthermore, we are able to also see suffixes, which reveal the Imperativeness or the granted words that are signaled as the ultimate letter ‘a’ at the final position of the word. From the regularity of the ultimate letters ‘eet?’, we can say that the offered words must be classified as suffixes indicating the 1 sg. Imperfect kind of Kikuyu words. We will talk about the underlying varieties of the morphemes regularity in a separate discussion in a later part. Now let us see the framework of the nasal sound which occurs prior to the stems.

It is conceivable an alternation is thought as a morpheme, which includes two different sound styles, which can be analyzed by a phonological process. From the data set of Kikuyu, the some alternations can be noticed as indicated in the following table (see table 3). The alternations could be identified easily in that ß becomes b; t /r becomes d; c becomes ?; k / ? turns into g. Those alternations may very well be the alternations in the language of Kikuyu whose phonological method will end up being explored in rules.

Table 3


Imperative------------1 sg. Imperfect

In a.b.ß-------------------------mb

In c.d.t-------------------------nd

In e.f.r-------------------------nd

In g.c---------------------------??

In h. my spouse and i. k-----------------------?g

In j. k. ?-----------------------?g

Furthermore, we can also see that a nasal consonant is certainly inserted before the altered consonant, e.g. m; n; ? and ?, which implies that the morphological process goes along with the phonological process. Such insertion shows us important points for the info set in the dialect of Kikuyu. We will discuss such phenomenon in greater concern in later component. However, there is one thing to say about this phenomenon in the insertion of nasal consonant in the 1 sg. Imperfect groups could be analyzed as particular prefixes embedded which might exhibit the tense of a verb. Whenever the alternation is definitely constructed in an opposite way, i.e. b turns into ß in data set, this result in an ill formed construction. Such a case is also falsifiable from data h. and j. where ?g would turn into k and ? respectively following the case. Consequently, we will consider the sequence of alternation as from Vital to 1 sg. Imperfect. The reanalysis of the stems of both varieties is illustrated in desk 4 underneath. Both prefixes (nasals) and suffixes (– a and – eet?) will be discarded in table 4 in order that we are able to get the stem of every verb.

Table 4.


Imperative--------------1 sg. Imperfect--------------English Meaning

ßur---------------------bur-------------------------------'lop off'

ßaar--------------------baar------------------------------'look at'










What we have observed up to now indicates that phonological pieces are obtained by mapping from the fundamental representation (UR) to the top (phonetic) representation (SR). This mapping phenomenon could be observed by rewrite rules which is discussed in a separate part. Basically, the data group of Kikuyu we have up to now could be considered as the Surface Representation. In the following paragraphs, we attempt to identify the fundamental representation of the Kikuyu vocabulary.

As noted above, we’ve seen that the unchanged letters in table 2 could be analyzed as the stems or area of the stems of what in the underlying representation. Based on minimization of the underlying representation we will try to rule in the consonant before the unchanged letters because it seems to be implausible to predict the consonants such as ß, t, r, c, k, ? by guideline. Furthermore, we have as well observed that the consonant ß can shift to b certainly not the vice versa. Referring to the SPE theory, minimizing the underlying representation means that anything, that can be predicted by a rule, ought to be eliminated from the underlying representation. For instance, the shifting from ß to b can be viewed in table 4 which is normally exemplified by the shifting is from ßur to bur. Such process likewise applies to all the words in the info set. By definition, we could get something similar to /ßur/ to get some of the stem for underlying representation of the word, which means ‘lop off’ in Kikuyu. The stems in underlying representation in the info set are offered in table 5 underneath and the Underlying Representations for the Essential and 1 sg. Imperfect are represented in desk 6.

Table 5


UR Stem English Meaning

/ßur/ 'lop off'

/ßaar/ 'glimpse at'

/t?m/ 'cut'

/tom/ 'send'

/reh/ 'pay'

/ru?/ 'cook'

/cin/ 'burn'

/kom/ 'sleep'

/ker/ 'cross'

/?or/ 'buy'

/?aj/ 'divide'

Table 6


Imperative UR 1 sg. Imperfect UR English Meaning

/ßur - a/ /Nas - bur -eet 'lop off'

/ßaar - a/ /Nas - baar-eet 'look at'

/t?m - a/ /Nas - d?m -eet 'cut'

/tom - a/ /Nas - dom -eet 'send'

/reh - a/ /Nas - deh -eet 'pay'

/ru? - a/ /Nas - du? -eet 'cook'

/cin - a/ /Nas - ?in -eet 'burn'

/kom - a/ /Nas - gom -eet 'sleep'

/ker - a/ /Nas - ger -eet 'cross'

/?or - a/ /Nas - gor -eet 'buy'

/?aj - a/ /Nas - gaj -eet 'divide'

In the framework of SPE, we have been familiar with the conditions such as for example abbreviatory conventions, conciseness, Minimize UR, Guideline format and Evaluation procedures, etc. They’ll be considered below under IPA consonant chart and show table where relevant information is given in desk 7 below:

Table 7

(Imp = Imperative) (1sg = 1 sg. Imperfect)

Group A (data a. b.)


ß - bilabial fricative (Imp)

b - bilabial plosive (1sg)

m - bilabial nasal (1sg)

Group B (data c. d. e. f.)

t - alveolar plosive (Imp)

r - alveolar fricative (Imp)

d - alveolar plosive (1sg)

n - alveolar nasal (1sg)

Group C (info g.)

c - palatal plosive (Imp)

? - palatal plosive (1sg)

? - palatal nasal (1sg)

Group D (data h. i actually. j. k.)

k - velar plosive (Imp)

? - velar fricative (Imp)

g - velar plosive (1sg)

? - velar nasal (1sg)

From the distribution in table 7, we are able to draw some important info in the top level. In Essential classification (Imp), we are able to discover that the fricatives will be plosives whereas in (1sg) group, we only observe the plosives types. This observation is effective for coming to the deduction that under particular environment, fricatives/plosives will be interpreted as (à) plosives. Furthermore, within each group, we are able to see that the same host to articulation is usually shared, i.e., bilabial / alveolar / palatal / velar. This observation will contribute to identify the relation between your changed consonants and the added nasal sound types.

In the mean time, within each ‘1sg’ group, we can also observe that the nasal sound constantly precedes the plosive audio. This observation is useful for understanding if the prefix [Nasal] functions happen to be in a linear buy. By applying the minimized major characteristic for these consonants, we can generate some crucial feature notations as mentioned below.


1. Fricatives [-boy, +cont]

2. Plosives [-boy, -cont]

3. Nasals [+child, -cont]

Therefore, now we can observe the assimilation of the feature [cont] in the course of transferring from fricatives to plosives and probably the dissimilation of the feature [son] between nasals and plosives. So that you can satisfy the conditions of Minimize UR and the Analysis measure, we could observe each sound at length and add the characteristic [voice] where we can see that plosives and nasals are [+voiced] as illustrated in table 8 below.

Table 8


Features - consonant Features-place of articulation

Group A (data a. b.)

ß - [-child] [+cont] [+voiced] (Imp) [+ant] [-cor]

b - [-son] [-cont] [+voiced] (1sg) [+ant] [-cor]

m - [+boy] [-cont] [+voiced] (1sg) [+ant] [-cor]

Group B (data c. d. e. f.)

t - [-boy] [-cont] [-voiced] (Imp) [+ant] [+cor]

r - [+son] [+cont] [+voiced] (Imp) [+ant] [+cor]

d - [-child] [-cont] [+voiced] (1sg) [+ant] [+cor]

n - [+child] [-cont] [+voiced] (1sg) [+ant] [+cor]

Group C (data g.)

c - [-child] [-cont] [-voiced] (Imp) [-ant] [+cor]

? - [-boy] [-cont] [+voiced] (1sg) [-ant] [+cor]

? - [+son] [-cont] [+voiced] (1sg) [-ant] [+cor]

Group D (info h. we. j. k.)

k - [-boy] [-cont] [-voiced] (Imp) [-ant] [-cor]

? - [-boy] [+cont] [+voiced] (Imp) [-ant] [-cor]

g - [-son] [-cont] [+voiced] (1sg) [-ant] [-cor]

? - [+boy] [-cont] [+voiced] (1sg) [-ant] [-cor]

From the features distribution above, we can observe a number of important generalizations. First, as we are able to see in the still left column, consonants could adapt themselves to the nasal through the shifting to plosive by preserving [-cont] and [+voiced]. Therefore, the consonant r in Group B may be the sole consonant in Imp which includes feature [+son], therefore, we must shift it to be [-son] as well in the course of shifting to plosive. Nevertheless, this is obviously not a kind of adjustment to the nasal since it is conceivable that all nasals are found to be [+son].

Second, in the proper column, we can discover that the insertions of prefixing nasals adjust themselves to the consonants and become bilabial / alveolar / palatal / velar nasal respectively in place of articulation. Furthermore, we try to figure out the modifications above as assimilation, plus the “dis-adjustment” of r as dissimilation. In sum, we are able to obtain two important rules in the language in question.

Rule A:



[+cons] à [+voice]/[+nas] ______


Such rule entails the adjustment of the consonants to the nasals. Under this guideline, ß turns into b; t and r becomes d; c becomes ?; k and ? becomes g because of the prefixing nasal. Therefore, all fricatives become plosives as given the next rule.

Rule B:


[+nas] à [aPlace]/______[aPlace]

In rule B, the same host to articulation can be construed by the notation [aPlace] represents here. This guideline signals the adjustment of the nasals to the consonants. Employing this rule, nasal can be m whenever aPlace can be bilabial; n whenever aPlace is normally alveolar; ? whenever aPlace can be palatal and ? whenever aPlace can be velar. The origin nasal in prefixing can’t be observed from the provided data set. For instance, if it is [+nas, +cor] then it ought to be a consonant ‘n’.

Along the prior part, we’ve observed some ordering rules in the words of Kikuyu. Further in this component, we will try to determine the ordering of the two rules we’ve mentioned in advance. Based on the SPE framework, we’ve seen that all morphological rules apply before all phonological guidelines. Although Kiparsky and many others believe the other way against this framework, we make an effort to see whether this rule is indeed workable within the spirit of SPE framework.

Here, the morphological guidelines are viewed as infix insertion, i just.e. prefix /Nas/; suffix /-a/ and /eet?/ in the given data collection which will apply to begin with and the phonological rules given in Rule A and Rule B over will apply in the second place. Now the question turns to which phonological rule applies in first purchase, being Rule A good or Guideline B. Suppose we have examples in info d and e from the offered data set. First, let us look at data d. it seems that we won’t locate any difference in info d with respect to the ordering of two rules and therefore the result looks like the same. Then, try to compare with data e. Let see what goes on.

Table 9


Data d = from [toma] to [ndomeet?]

If Rule A precedes Rule B

Morphological Guideline /Nas/ + /tom/ + /eet?/ =UR

Rule A /Nas/ + /dom/ + /eet?/

Rule B /n/ + /dom/ + /eet?/ =SR

If Guideline B precedes Rule A

Morphological Rule /Nas/ + /tom/ + /eet?/ =UR

Rule B /n/ + /tom/ + /eet?/

Rule A /n/ + /dom/ + /eet?/ =SR

Data e. from [reha] to [ndeheet?]

If Rule A precedes Rule B

Morphological Rule /Nas/ + /reh/ + /eet?/ =UR

Rule A /Nas/ + /deh/ + /eet?/

Rule B /n/ + /deh/ + /eet?/ =SR

If Guideline B precedes Rule A

Morphological Rule /Nas/ + /reh/ + /eet?/ =UR

Rule B /n/ + /reh/ + /eet?/

Rule A /n/ + /deh/ + /eet?/ =SR

As we can see above, the comparison between info d and e indicates the same thing for purchasing of two rules aswell. This shows that the ordering of rules don’t have something regarding the result. It further shows that the nasals and the derived consonants could have a relatively strong connection with each other, i.e. one co-exists with the different.

Within the SPE framework, the data set offers been analyzed in the kind of features of lexical specific segments. We tried to use the rules we have and they seems to work effectively. This gives further more indication that the SPE framework can be considered as effective software in explaining the phenomenon in data set of Kikuyu language. On the other hand, it appears that the relationship between the two rules isn’t transparent. The reason for this might be the issue in generating the only person rule rather than two explaining such phenomenon in the SPE framework.

The Post-SPE Framework

Autosegmental phonology was presented by John Goldsmith (1976) and re presented a great step forward in linguistic exploration. In the classical generative theory developed by Chomsky and Halle, phonological components had been linear sequences of segments which themselves consisted of feature bundles. One of many downfalls of the

SPE framework resided in the assumption that each segment had to match exactly one feature specification and vice-versa (every feature specification had to match precisely one segment). Consequently, various phonological phenomena (linked to stress and anxiety, lengthening, rhythm and intonation for instance) were left unexplained.

SPE simply had no chance of providing an effective consideration of prosodic phenomena. As explained by Goldsmith himself ((1999: p.137), “Autosegmental phonology takes its particular claim about the geometry of phonetic and phonological representations. it shows that the phonetic representation is composed of a set of several simultaneous sequences of the segments, with certain elementary constraints on how the various levels of sequences could be interrelated or ‘associated’. The main innovation brought about by Post-SPE framework may be the truth that supra segmental features, such as tension or tone, are no longer confined to exactly one segment but can be shared by two or more segments and vice-versa. Some features, while remaining associated with a segment, are now handled separately. Many phonological phenomena can then be analyzed when it comes to a restructuring or reorganization of the autosegments in a representation.

Different from the primary section, in this article we will analyze the data set of Kikuyu within the Post-SPE framework, or also known as the Autosegmental Phonology but within this cesar chavez essay paper we rather use the term Post SPE simply for the sake of easiness compared. In this section, we will also consider the usage of the IPA chart and show notations for the discussion in the Post-SPE framework. Also in this part we may still view some rules from SPE framework and will be examined in the spirit of Post-SPE framework. Phenomenon such as assimilation and dissimilation will be approached to address the problems we found in the data group of Kikuyu Language. Of study course, other theories within the Post-SPE may also be introduced. Why don’t we start our debate with the identification of features and spreading in this framework.

In this framework, features will be viewed as independent features of their segments to allow them to end up being represented as auto-segments. We can observe in the info group of Kikuyu language that a phonological method can influence more than one consonant at a time. This may lead us to examine the data we’d in desk 3 where ß – mb; t – nd; r – nd; c – ??; k – ?g; ? – ?g, with the provided two rules. We have mentioned earlier about assimilation in SPE, i actually.e. an alternation which copies an attribute specification from the closest segment. Take Group A and Rule B for example:


[+nas]à [bila Place] / ______ [bila Place]

Nà m / ______ ß / b

In the Post-SPE framework, assimilation is recognized as the spreading of features to the neighbouring X-slots. This ensures that an X-slot is associated with the two X-slot machine games, resulting assimilation as illustrated below:



|à¥|à¥| [+ant][+ant] [+ant]

[-cor] [-cor] [-cor]

For the sake of easiness, some tiers will be excluded. Here, X represents the improved consonant in Kikuyu. The nasal is known as another X slot, which is definitely marked as N. After spreading, we see that the two X-slots share the characteristic of [+ant] and [-cor]. The feature from the neighboring X-slot could possibly be deleted after the course of spreading. The replacing of Rule A in the Post SPE framework is a little more complicated than Rule B since deletion is definitely involved. As for example, consider Group A we have observed above, within the SPE framework, we will get the shifting below.


[+disadvantages]à [-cont] [+voice] [-child] / [+nas]______

ßà b / N______

Then, why don’t we apply this within the Content SPE framework to investigate this phenomenon where we have two X-slot machines represent Nasal and Consonant respectively during

the span of alternation. A good example of shifting from Nß to Nb is given below.



| | à | /

[+son] [-son] [+boy] [-son]

[-cont] [+cont] [-cont] [-cont]

[+voiced] [+voiced] [+voiced] [+voiced]

For the sake of easiness, some tiers are reduced. We can check out in the shifting procedure that [-boy, +voiced] features will be preserved through the shifting and [+cont] characteristic turns into [-cont]. In the SPE framework, it really is conceivable that morphological rules apply before phonological rules, so we’ve a Nasal slot before Consonant slot in 1 sg. Imperfect in Kikuyu. When we analyze even more in the Content SPE framework during the shifting, [+son and -child] features reduces to [-boy], then [cont and tone of voice] features shift to [-cont, +voiced]. This suggests assimilation to the nasal feature. All consonants following nasal are still [-cont, +voiced] but that is still regarded as process of assimilation. As a result, the same host to articulation of nasal adapting to the next consonant is considered an activity of assimilation.

Different from assimilation, let us discuss about the dissimilation in the provided data set for the characteristic [son]. In table 3, we have seen that in data e and f, r becomes nd. The evaluation under Post-SPE is determined in the next diagram.


ràN + ràN + ràN + dànd


|à| |à| -| /

[+son][+son] [+boy][+son] [+son][+son] [-son]

[+cont][-cont] [+cont][-cont] [+cont][-cont] [-cont]

[+voiced] [+voiced][+voiced] [+voiced][+voiced] [+voiced][+voiced]

In the on top of diagram, we’ve reduced some tiers with regard to easiness. When the lines happen to be associated, the line behind X is definitely deleted, which is normally marked as (-). This result the removal of the feature [+cont] [+voiced] and the slot receives brand-new features from features under the N (nasal) slot. Nevertheless, we see that feature [+son] becomes [-son] during shifting. Therefore, this causes an assimilation method towards nasal sound since nasal audio is [+son] and all the consonants usually do not change their [-boy] features. That is problematical. Therefore, we may approach it within the spirit of “Geometry of Phonological Features” by Clement. He suggests that there will be three types of assimilation; total, partial and single-feature, relying much on the position of the spreading factor in the tiers. We observe that [boy] and [cont] generate on a single tier, i.e. approach tier. Consequently, classifying this phenomenon as partial and single feature assimilation seems to be implausible because the assimilation of the data set has involved several feature. It appears that dissimilation with such theory cannot be preserved. Now why don’t we try to account for the phenomenon with the X theory. Consider the following diagram with an example the word ßura in info a.


Data a:

s s hierarchical syllable structure

/ | / |

/R / R (Rhyme)

/ | / |

ON ON (Onset - Nucleus - Coda)

| | | |

XX XX skeleton (no feature [±syllabic] in X theory)

| | | |

ßu ra autosegmental features

The two segments such as for example nasal and plosive behave like as though one segment. These segments can be viewed as as pre-nasalized consonants which may be marked in other styles. Similar phenomenon can be within other languages such as for example Bantu language. Regarding Kikuyu, it seem to end up being implausible for such a dialect to have a Nasal+Consonant (NC) cluster in 1 sg. Imperfect being a prenasalized consonant. Because the NC in the info set of Kikuyu is in fact one X-slot it seems to be generalizeable that such a language does not allow two [+son] in a single slot and one of these has to go [-child], which is in cases like this the consonant one. Put simply, in NC cluster nasal audio is pronounced with [+child] and NC promote the same [-cont, +voiced] features. Further, on this issue, we may have to address such phenomenon with another theory, which continues to be in the spirit of content SPE, i just.e. the Mora theory

The discussion within this process might offer better understanding on the phenomena of mono segmental NC cluster. In Mora theory, even so, it seems to become more difficult to propose further more examination on the given data for the changes, which were involved in the terminology of Kikuyu. In this theory, an starting point is what could be able to become changing in this vocabulary since an onset consonant is certainly irrelevant to mora due to the absence of weight. It may be arguable that since the onset consonants do not count for timing (Van Oostendorp), the slot might simply become one slot for the NC seems instead of two slot machine games for such a terminology. Consider the diagram below, which might suggest the first step of morphological alternation within the Mora theory.


s... s... s...

/ | // | /|

/µ à // µ or /µ

/ | // | /|


ß u Nßu Nßu

Within this section, we attempt to take into account the occurrence of spreading and assimilation within the Post-SPE framework. Particular phenomenon, which used to be a little complicated to explain beneath the earlier framework of phonological representations, gets a lot more revealed if we make an effort to notice any phenomena from the perspective of the Content SPE framework. The observation on the phenomenon of the Kikuyu info set seems to be better described under the latest theory the nature of the info set should be preserved in such a good way, as Goldsmith proposes.


So far, we have tried to account for the phenomenon of Kikuyu words within the two frameworks, i.e. SPE and Post SPE. We have viewed both strengths and weaknesses. More often than not, the main difference between your two frameworks, SPE and Post SPE is normally that in SPE, data group of Kikuyu is definitely analyzed within segmental level case study analysis example whereas in the later on framework, the info set is analyzed in an auto-segmental level, hence it is called Autosegmental phonology. Even more distinctions can even be captured within the notion of assimilation. In SPE framework, assimilation is normally construed as kind of copying procedure whereas in the after framework, assimilation can be analyzed as spreading. Furthermore, in SPE we seems to have one-to-one which is thought as mapping whereas the later framework, the X position can be connected with zero, be it one or two autosegments.

In the SPE framework, we obtain the underlying representations on the basis of the features analysis in which at the later stage, we’re able to generate two guidelines to stand for the phenomenon of shifting in Kikuyu info set. In the later framework, we do not deal with rules, instead spreading of association lines and assimilation to account for the problem are participating. When we attempt to incorporate the two guidelines in SPE framework into one single spreading in the post SPE framework, some obstacles such as for example dissimilation of [son] could possibly be encountered. We tried out to propose some possible answers to the problem in question; however, we seem to have some remaining problems. For instance, when we make an effort to propose one assumption of mono-segment rather than bi-segment for NC cluster within the Content SPE framework, but nonetheless there are several questions left.

In bottom line, both frameworks include their own strengths and weaknesses. In the SPE framework, we discovered that the rules are considered as well explained to handle the given phenomenon. Even so, this framework continues to be unable to reveal the inner relationship among the changing components in Kikuyu. In the in the future framework, the research is pretty much closer to the inner relationship but we check out that there some exceptions that require to be considered. If we must choose, we would say that the Post SPE framework appears to be more helpful than that of the first framework regardless some exceptions exist. Following Goldsmith, the Post SPE framework contributes higher in figuring out the type of Kikuyu language than the first one since it could approach some conditions of Kikuyu vocabulary better.


Chomsky, N. and M. Halle (1968). “Phonetic and Phonological Representation”. In

Goldsmith (1999): Phonological Theory: THE FUNDAMENTAL Readings. Blackwell Publishers(pp.17-21).

Chomsky, N. and M. Halle (1976). The Sound Design of English. New York: Harper and Row.

Clements, G.N. and S.J. Keyser (1983). CV Phonology: A Generative Theory of the Syllable.

Cambridge: MIT Press. Van Oostendorp, M (2005). Mora Theory. p1-8

Goldsmith (1999): Phonological Theory: The Essential Readings. Blackwell Publishers.

Goldsmith, J. (1976). An Overview of Autosegmental Phonology. Phonological Theory: The Essential Readings. Blackwell Publishers.

Class Handouts

Session 1 – Classical Generative Phonology (2008.Sept.12)

Session 2 – Overview of standard features (2008.Sept.19)

Session 4 – Autosegmental phonology I – features (2008.Oct.3)

Session 5 – Autosegmental phonology II – the CV skeleton (2008.Oct.10)

Session 6 – Autosegmental phonology III – the mora (2008.Oct.17)